1893 correspondence between
Octave Chanute and Louis Pierre Mouillard

Cairo, January 9, 1893

Louis-Pierre Mouillard to Octave Chanute

My dear Sir,

I am deeply grieved by the death of Mr. Hastings. Although I did not have the pleasure to know him personally, I was interested in him as the one whom I hoped may bring my idea to a realization. Not withstanding his youth he had to die before me.

I shall always remember him.

From Mr. Langley I received a charming letter and 500 francs with which he favored me. I am going to write him by the same mail, to thank him for his kindness.

As to the book, dear Sir, do what you think should be done. I am moved by the precautions that you take for it. I believe, as you said in a former letter, that it will be of interest to me to read it again for, although I have the notes from which I wrote it, I ordered myself not to keep on rereading it, and I have kept my word. It will be nearly new to me now and the faults will be more obvious than if I had read it again and again.

I came to a part of your letter which made my heart beat for a moment. I read it rapidly and was under the impression that you were coming. I had to read it over again to convince myself that I have been wrong and that you are not coming to Cairo. At least I have been happy for a moment. How I would have liked to see you! But I understand and have to yield. You are lucky to be able to take care of your wife. I have lost mine and am afraid for others only to think of it.

If I may be permitted I kindly ask you to give Mrs. Chanute the best wishes for her health and happiness submitted by a humble aviator.

Let us get to the question of the airplane patent. I admit that I never expected such a decision of the patent office. I think that without being wicked, one may say that they have not studied the aviation problem sufficiently. On the one hand the Institute, Mr. Langley, and you yourself and even nature, on the other hand "without a balloon the machine cannot rise," it does not make any sense. The patent office wants obvious, simple, comprehensible and even demonstrated facts. If the facts were practically demonstrated that would be all that is necessary, the demonstration would be rather important and rather obvious to give the entire matter an absolute certainty of propriety.

In view of these annoying facts I recall the ideas I had at the time I was able to act when I expected nothing but the possibility to be able to study. I intended to make my tests upon a small building being at my ease during all the time of my studies and to return to the ground only by airplane to proclaim and demonstrate that I have succeeded. The building, though small, never was at my disposal, spare time never came, as I always had to think of making a living, crawling on the ground. So I decided to present what I knew to other people. Although I have tried to make myself understood as clearly as possible, I am conscious of the fact that I have rallied but a few searchers to my way of thinking.

Although I thought to make more believers than I really have had at that time, I think today will be a much better time to succeed.

I am going to answer your two questions:

1) How much will an airplane cost?

The one I have described to you will obviously not cost more than the price of the aluminum and of the spring - several hundred francs, plus the most important of all: freedom of action.

2) For an open air demonstration, would it be possible to disguise enough of the construction, so that the idea will not be understood?

Before the publication of "L'Empire de l'Air"I have been thinking seriously to try out this airplane, i.e., learn how to fly. As I certainly would have been noticed, I intended to mislead those who might see me, by putting side by side with my back a very light booby propeller which has a diameter of about one meter and would be rotated by the air stream. On the frame of each wing, within the reach of the hands. I wanted to fix two light boxes which however would appear to be heavy, to represent two boilers in which from time to time I wanted to burn some substances which produce plenty of smoke. Seen from a distance this would produce an effect as if two boilers seemed to actuate a propeller.

At that time I hoped and I believe it is still the case today, that due to the prevailing ideas, this simple trick should be sufficient to throw the inquisitive ones off the track; in short, this would be to cash in on the generally admitted idea that an airplane absolutely needs propulsion in order to keep afloat.

As to the question which the examiner asked Mr. Whittlesey the only answer I can give is what you know from my books. In practice I have only covered 42 meters and this without a single witness, but it is not worth talking about. I am like Moses facing the promised land, I see it, my teachers, the birds tell me to enter it and I cannot do it. I cannot think of taking this step myself, my infirmity would endanger the success of the experiments. But somebody else who is more agile could follow the way shown in my books, and reach the goal, with very little effort. As to asking for a model which is able to takeoff, would be asking for an airplane handled by a human master who knows how to fly. This is exactly what we want to do by taking guarantees to safeguard our methods by means of patents.

With great impatience I am expecting your opinion on my torpedoes. I hope that will be a protection for the ship which has been built to carry them.

Very dear sir, with an affectionate handshake I am, Your devoted, Mouillard

January 21, 1893

Octave Chanute to Louis-Pierre Mouillard

Dear Sir,

I received your letter of December 24th. You are about to receive my letters of December 12th, 22nd, and 25th also the part of your book which I sent by registered mail on December 27th. I have translated part of what I still hold, but by doing so I have overworked myself somewhat and had to take a rest.

To make matters worse, it happened that Mr. Langley had about one third of "L'Empire de l'Air" translated for the purpose of citations. But he is not satisfied with this translation (and I do not blame him) and has sent it to me for revision.

All this is to tell you that your name is the topic of the day here and that I herewith return your good wishes for the New Year.

I hope that we will arrive at a combination which will enable us to put gliding to the test.

With a handshake, I am, 0. Chanute

Cairo, January 22, 1893

Louis-Pierre Mouillard to Octave Chanute

My dear Sir,

I received my book. I started to read it and it seems almost new to me. I found some annotations in your own handwriting. They are very sound and I am adding mine to them, so that there will be much to be done then.

I am now going to answer your two kind letters.

The way you appraise my torpedoes gives me great pleasure. What does Mr. Langley think of them? I am very anxious to know it. I would be extremely happy to reach a state where I would no longer be restrained, where I would have a bit of freedom, in other words when I would be able to devote myself comfortable and composed to experiments with the airplane. I think it is prudent to admit that this cannot be done in one day, as much as I am convinced of the success. First of all it depends on the subjects we will have for experimentation, then we have to do it over and over again to bring it to perfection. All this takes tim, and I would like, and this is very natural, not to be under obligation to anybody, not even to you, dear sir, notwithstanding the unlimited kindness which you have shown toward me. I thank you from the bottom of my heart for the money you are putting at my disposal but I want to apply it to aviation only and none of it for my living expenses. My idle fancy is to be in a position by means of my ship or the torpedo to be able to experiment without remorse, without having to think that I live on the bread of somebody else. I hope you will see my point, dear Sir, as I really would like to have nothing better and it seems to me to be common sense, therefore, having presented these ideas, I assure you that I would feel easier if an offer were made.

All this is very well, but as you say, this may take as long as the experimental studies of aviation, and according to the proverb "time is money," I probably will have no choice. Here then is what I think ought to be done.

As I am entirely on the side lines and as you are at the controls, you can observe more clearly and intimately. Please tell me then what I should do. I shall depend entirely on your kindness without restriction, without hidden motive. Decide what I should do, and I shall obey.

I could leave Egypt for some time or for ever. What ties me here is a small herbalist shop which I run in partnership, with a woman in whom I have full confidence; there is nothing else. I also have a position with the Egyptian government which brings me 260 francs per month, just enough to keep me alive and that is all. No wife, no child, I am entirely free. Above all I dread the summer heat in this climate and shall see America with pleasure. Now it is up to you to make a decision and I shall do what you tell me to do.

Now permit me a word of explanation of what you remarked at the end of your letter. The reason that there are more birds in Egypt than in the Western World is that the people are more kind toward them than the white men. The Egyptians as well as the peoples of the entire orient show consideration for animals and for this reason mongooses, foxes, jackals, hyenas, etc. multiply, and birds are so plentiful. It is the kindness or indifference which is greater here than elsewhere and not the activity of the wind. On the contrary, I am convinced that it is less violent than in the temperature zone. There should then be plenty of wind throughout, to make gliding possible and it would be easy to make use of proper air currents by using a balloon to gain altitude.

I now come to your second letter. I received the book which arrived in good condition and in the perfect order you arranged it. I intend to rewrite the final part of "Suction" as it is colorless and does not please me at all.

As to the question of how to proceed with the publication of my book, I did not answer for the simple reason that I did not dare to dwell upon this subject. You are giving everything, why start a discussion? Here again I shall follow your lead.

If I had not written my two books which should show a very free will when it was necessary, I ought to seem to you to be an irresolute person; but fortunately for me this is not so. I have made up my mind how it should be done. Yet when you heap favors upon me, I confess there is nothing left for me to do than to let you decide in these matters.

The first book required a large advance payment on my part. I do not know exactly what became of it when the account was balanced, it seems to me it should show 700 or 800 francs in my favor. At any rate the publisher owes me and I owe him nothing. I hope that the "Vol sans Battement" will sell at least as well or even better than "L'Empire de l'Air" even if the price is twice as much. There will probably be a much easier sale of this book from the start, as the reader will get more value out of it (generally speaking). In short, it should have more success than its predecessor which had to pave the way. Finally the income will be doubled. Here you have a statement of what I think of my book. Now, if you please, be kind enough to handle the problem.

I just read my letter over again and find out once more that I lack power of decision. I want you to blame it on my embarrassment due to your generosity.

With an affectionate handshake, I am your devoted, Mouillard

February 17, 1893

Octave Chanute to Louis-Pierre Mouillard

About 10 days ago I received your kind letter of January 9th but I was so overworked that I could not reply. Today your letter of the 22nd reached; me.

My wife was very much affected by your good wishes. However, she has been suffering very much and the doctor advised her to spend several weeks in the South. We are going to leave for Florida tomorrow evening. I am answering your first letter now and I shall write you again from the South.

I translated the rest of your book except the two chapters: "Chats" and "The Desert," using the dictation method. I am going to make any corrections necessary while on the train and I am going to send you the book from Florida.

Here is an idea which I am considering for quite some time: It has been proposed to hold an Air Navigation Meeting in Chicago on August 1st, 2nd and 3rd of this year and I have accepted the presidency of the organization committee. At the end of this meeting I intend to present a plan whereby I propose myself to be one of 20 persons willing to advance 25,000 francs each to experiment with flying machines which seem to have a chance of success, with the provision that the inventor transfers one half of his patents to the society. What do you think of this plan?

If I should succeed and if your project is entrusted to this society (of which I am not clear) I shall transfer my half to the society while yours remains intact.

At any rate, I intend to present to this meeting a treatise by you which, by the way, is already completed. It is your proposal for a society of experimenters on the shores of the Mediterranean, which could just as well operate on the Gulf of Mexico or the Pacific Ocean.

All it needs for publications is a short introduction.

1) Explaining that gliding flight is a reality, and what are the maneuvers of gliding birds.

2) When the wind provides the necessary motive force, it seems certain that man could imitate these birds if he knows how to start out.

3) That this takes time and practice.

4) That there is nothing better than freedom of action to learn how to use any kind of flying machine.

5) Followed by your plan of a society of experimenters, either a good copy of the text of the book you are about to publish or reedited especially for this paper if you so prefer.

All in all from 3000 to 4000 words which I shall translate and have printed before the meeting takes place to serve as a basis for discussion among the participating aviators.

I did send you a program of this meeting already and I am sending you another one, but I am so tired out from other work that I could not translate it for you, as I intended to do.

Mr. Langley wrote me that he has not yet been able to examine your torpedo but that he will do so soon. I believe that he is very busy, like myself, has not much time to spare.

With a handshake, I am, 0. Chanute

Address mail to Chicago as usual.

P. S. In order to get a little better informed on the question whether it would be better to have a society entrusted with the experiments of your projects or to carry them out myself, please tell me:

1) Have you got somebody in Egypt to make these experiments under your direction?

2) How much money do you think would be necessary to defray all expenses in order to obtain a certainty as to the result.

3) Have you had any propositions from French aviators? I think that acceptable offers could be made to you since it is known that you have applied (for a patent) in America.

Cairo, February 19, 1893

Louis-Pierre Mouillard to Octave Chanute

My dear sir,

Yesterday I forwarded by registered mail a metal tube containing the article for the Cosmopolitan and two drawings - 1) Vultures in flight and 2) an enlarged drawing of some stages of this flight.

I have been unable to send you the small paper airplane models because the post office in Cairo does not accept parcels for the United States. I feel bad about this, as I doubt that they would arrive in good condition otherwise. These models are so delicate and so fugacious that unless they are properly shaped they will not demonstrate what they are able to do. So it will be necessary that somebody who knows how to do it reshapes them after each performance.

Between the pages of my book I found an aluminum paper cutter. As it had been carefully wrapped in paper, I take the liberty to thank you very much for it. At the same time, I want to state that it seems to me that aluminum for aviation should be different than this sample. At my opinion it should be heavier than 2.6. It has not exactly the same color as a piece of aluminum I have in my possession for at least some ten years, and above all it is not as rigid as mine. If I can read between the lines, I should better say guess, Mr. Langley ought to be well acquainted with the metallurgy of this element and its alloys, if you have a chance, will you kindly ask him his opinion about mixtures of silicum and aluminum, I think that this metal is very light and strong.

Lately I have often been thinking of airplanes and I came to the conclusion that the best aviator I can think of is your devoted servant (I say this without self-conceit). On the other hand I could not think to use the machine you patented, unless I was 25 years old once more. Here then is a difficulty to be overcome. It could be done by means of an aircraft I have briefly mentioned - webs actuated by a rotary engine which you have seen on my torpedoes, setting in motion a body and bird wings. This machine should be less troublesome to handle than the patented one. This is what I have in mind at present. I believe that it may be possible to lift several passengers. This must be seriously worked out.

I wish to thank you immensely for the article you wrote about me in the Engineering Journal.

With great anxiety I am waiting for news about my torpedoes.

This is all I have to say today, dear sir. With an affectionate hand shake I am, your devoted, Mouillard

St. James City, So. Florida. March 28, 1893

Octave Chanute to Louis-Pierre Mouillard

Dear Sir,

Several days ago I received your letter of February 19th and I just received your article for the Cosmopolitan which does you the finest credit and which I am going to translate, as soon as I get back home.

However, I notice that you do not explain in the text the meaning of the enlarged drawings of the individual birds. Would it not be expedient to indicate the action of gliding in reference to the attitudes of the birds which you reproduced? If you agree with me, let me have this indication, either some paragraphs to be inserted in the text (which at my opinion would be preferable) or some subtitles to be added. I shall send you a tracing of your drawings, as soon as I am able to get thin paper, for I am here in a lost hamlet where there are more vultures (aura), pelicans, frigate birds, eagles, and gulls than human inhabitants.

Unfortunately I have been more exhausted than I knew and I could not enjoy these birds as much as I would have done last year. I am recuperating but I did not have the strength to revise my translation of your book. I therefore ask you kindly to wait a little while longer until my mind is clear again.

I am happy to be able to report to you that my wife has recovered her health much quicker than I did, and we are thinking of returning to Chicago soon.

With a handshake I am, 0. Chanute

April 2, 1893

Octave Chanute to Louis-Pierre Mouillard

Dear Sir,

I am sending you some tracings of your drawings "Some individual birds enlarged" on the only tracing paper I could get. As it came in small sheets I had to split your plates into several lines.

As I wrote you, the readers would not understand the relation between these drawings and gliding without being more fully informed. please return the tracings to me with indications which are needed for printing your article (in a single plate or distributed in the article); some attitudes which you depicted (gliding, turning, taking off, landing, etc.) also add some paragraphs explaining how the bird utilizes the wind and dispenses with flapping the wings by means of these various attitudes.

Very sincerely, 0. Chanute

April 24, 1893

Octave Chanute to Louis-Pierre Mouillard

Dear Sir,

I returned from Florida, as my health is almost fully restored.

The drugs which I had to take to get this result have weakened me in such a way that I still have been unable to revise my translation of your book. However, I shall do so and send you the package within a few days.

As to the terms of the advance payment for the (printing) costs, I think it would be best to give me an assignment on the book dealer in charge of the sale until the amount loaned has been reimbursed, after which he has to give an account to you. In this case you would not have to sign a note and would be free of the fear of its due date

Let me know when you will need the money.

I shall write you more fully shortly. I find plenty to do after an absence of two months.

With a handshake I am, 0. Chanute

Cairo, April 25, 1893

Louis-Pierre Mouillard to Octave Chanute

My dear sir,

Returning from a rather long visit with my friend "the desert" I found your kind letter which I want to answer at once.

I am very glad to learn that Mrs. Chanute is well again, but am quite sorry to know you to be still sick Allow me, dear sir, to scold you a bit.

It is necessary to beware of any excesses whatever, even excessive work. I look at you from a distance and see that you are working too hard: Exposition, aviation, your wood preserving factory, many presidencies of which I could catch a glimpse etc., etc., and I know that I do not know the rest of it. Altogether this is too much for one man. You have got to go easy and not to kill yourself. I am convinced that your family thinks the same way, I join them in begging you to rest, to recuperate in peace and to watch the things you have sown grow and prosper.

I wish to beg your pardon for daring to moralize, yet I can assure you it comes from a sincere friend.

I am convinced that this letter will meet you in Chicago fully recovered and exultant, the way you deserve it. This ought to be a good day for those attached to you.

From afar I will witness your triumph the best I can, but I am sure that I will never be able to realize the smallest part of your great success.

April 24. - I received your letter of the 2nd inst. The change of place seems to me to be a good sign, you do not speak of health, so that is plenty of news, good news; no matter, I did not want to recommence my letter.

Here are the titles which I think could be used for the two drawings.

Sketch #1. Flight of fellow vultures (gyps fulvus)

" #2 The above drawing enlarged

1.-2.-3. Aspect of the course of flight. The bird arrives from quite a distance, above the feasting place, after having many kilometers at that speed without the need for a single wing beat.

4 . The prey has just been sighted, the bird speeds along in the air, and describes with rapidity enormous circles that enable it to see from various angles whether the dead animal is accessible.

5. It seems that this vulture did not find it safe enough to alight so it climbs back into the air using gliding flight. This bird and the one marked no. 11 are the only subjects in this drawing which are in a climbing position.

6.-7.-8. These three vultures proceed to scrutinize the harmlessness of alighting on the prey - the bird glides in the air, but descends slowly. The angle at which the bird drops is about 10°.

9. This subject shows a free fall. Yet it is also a descent and a forward translation because the wing tips are downward.

10. Vertical dive without forward or backward motion.

I think this is sufficient. Besides, that is all I wanted to say. In order to demonstrate with precision the positions of the wings during flight, a mechanical bird would be necessary whose wings and body could make all the turns a bird makes, so this could be shown from every angle. It is not easy to bring these points out in a drawing.

I just remember that I forgot to sign drawing No. 2 with my anagram. Will you be kind enough to put it there. You will notice it on the bottom of Flight of vultures, it is ..... Will you also be so good, dear sir, to convey to Mrs. Chanute the feelings of my deep satisfaction of her full recovery, and accept a sincere handshake from

Your devoted, Mouillard

Please, how much do you weigh when you are in good health?

May 21, 1893

Octave Chanute to Louis-Pierre Mouillard

Your kind letter of April 25th reached me in Kansas City, 160 miles from Chicago. Here is exactly one of my many presidencies you have been guessing about.

You are perfectly right when you scold me in a friendly way about the excessive amount of work I am doing. I want to ease this load and this is the reason why I am here. I am trying to sell one of the enterprises in which my small savings are invested. For many years I have here a trucking company which has not yielded anything for the past five years, and, loss for loss, I rather put this amount in aeronautical experiments than in 100 horses and 70 wagons which I own here. You see, I have you in mind.

There is also something else. I am aware that the translation of L'Empire de l'Air which has been made for Mr. Langley does not express your thoughts at all and does not do you justice. I am going to do it all over again and add here and there a phrase for the benefit of the examiner at the patent office who thinks that an airplane cannot take off without a balloon.

As soon as this is finished I am going to translate your article for the Cosmopolitan, and ask your permission to modify certain parts of it, to make them understandable to the readers who are not informed on the subject. Your style is admirable, but from time to time there are some implications which my friends to whom I read the article, translating it aloud, did not understand unless I gave an explanation. I also believe that it would be of advantage to go over the passage which treats the rolling ball.

When I am in good health I weigh from 66 to 68 kilograms. At present I weigh 65 kilograms but I am regaining the weight lost during my breakdown.

I would be glad, if it would be possible for you to give me some instructions necessary to reconstruct the model airplane which you could not send me by mail. My next letter will be coming to you from Chicago.

Sincerely yours, 0. Chanute

Cairo, May 27, 1893

Louis-Pierre Mouillard to Octave Chanute

My dear sir,

I received your last letter in proper time. I thank you once more for the kindness bestowed upon me and I agree perfectly with you about the notes which might put me into embarrassing circumstances and interfere with my studies.

Now this is settled; only at present there is no hurry, because I have formally decided to put into practice myself the ideas which I express in my two books.

A real improvement of my illness urges me to do so. I feel well, am getting strong and active again and I believe this to be the moment to act. This may be my last chance.

Besides, the method I want to try requires the least exertion of all I have put together.

I kindly ask you to consider very seriously the following statement. You are herewith authorized to act as my attorney, sign for me whatever is to be signed, do and act as I myself would do it if I were on the spot and not in Cairo.

I take the liberty to ask you for this service as the two months it takes a letter and the reply to it get to their destination are an obstacle to any transaction.

I therefore ask you to act as my attorney, as you see fit, and I shall consider valid any action you are going to take, and shall back you up to the extreme limit.

Here is the reason which compels me to write you these lines. I certainly do not doubt for a moment your good will toward me. I am conscious of the fact that you are convinced that I shall not disavow any of your decisions. Therefore these lines are not meant for you but for the outsiders to satisfy them that you have the power to act in my behalf.

I consider then this letter to be a formal power of attorney which I give to you to act for me at your best judgement. As far as I am concerned, I shall do everything which is humanly possible to meet any obligation you may have entered into in my name.

In case you are going to form the society you mentioned to me in your recent letter, I kindly ask you to decide what I shall do, and to tell me only afterwards without having consulted me beforehand, to what you have me obligated.

The same holds good for any other occasion where you consider it to be a good thing to act for me.

Here is such a case. I kindly ask you to decide what I shall do in regard to the prize competition presented by the Smithsonian Institution. Mr. Langley sent me the circular concerning the Hodgkins fund prizes, I discern rather vaguely that this is a competition about matters of the air, but, considering the distance and my ignorance of English, I cannot make out the details and do not perceive the finesses. I cannot determine whether or not it will be expedient to take any steps in this direction. You know these things exactly and I do not know the first word of it.

Finally, this power of attorney has also the purpose to state precisely that I ignore the question of danger which seems to be connected with any flight experiment.

I think very little of this danger. I have discounted it long ago and I think it is hardly greater than those presented by common means of transportation; horseback riding, sea and land travel. The main thing is to take proper precautions to avoid this danger.

Resume: I am very far away from the place where a transaction is going to take place, in order to be nearer to it, I kindly ask you to substitute for me.

With an affectionate handshake, I am more and more, Your devoted, Mouillard

Yesterday I got a series of stimulations in advance of that program which came to me from the United States, by the chance of seeing a hundred large vultures pass overhead. Not for a long time have I had an opportunity to observe them so well. The effect produced is always the same: Here is the way. The small vultures which are in front of me all the time do not incite the idea to imitate flight, because of their lack of stability and the motions due to this fact. However the large vultures create positively an obsession; it is a revelation.

I thank you very much for the prints on Langley's flying machine. I did not understand a great deal of it.

Your devoted, Mouillard

June 14, 1893

Octave Chanute to Louis-Pierre Mouillard

My dear sir,

I returned from Washington where there is no use reasoning with the patent examiner. He now says he wants a declaration or formal statement instead of a deposition, and also a model that reproduces the ascent.

As you made your memorable experiment without witnesses, you must make this deposition yourself, have it translated and confirm it under oath before the representative of the United States.

The model may be more difficult, but I think you might be able to send me one which, when exposed to wind, may make the ascent backward so as to explain that animation is necessary to create suction.

Please send me these two things as soon as possible.

The translation of your article is almost completed and I hope it will have quite an effect on the examiner.

The translation of L'Empire de l'Air? (excerpts) for the publication of the Smithsonian Institution is half finished. I had to do it all over again.

In Washington I procured the report on experiments made in Berlin in 1891 and 1892 by Mr. Lilienthal, a German engineer who experimented with a machine to glide with the wind. I am sending you the pictures which Mr. Curtiss of the Smithsonian received from Berlin. I am using these pictures for my next article which I shall send you as soon as it is published, in about two weeks. I am so busy that, to my deep regret at the present time I am unable to translate it for you.

Lilienthal figures on up-wind to get suction. So far, he has not ventured to apply himself entirely, but he made some descending gliding flights. He started out with a machine of 10 square meters but had to reduce it to 8 square meters (less risky). Last year he tried 16 square meters but says this is too dangerous. He also says that it is not necessary to take a chance when the wind velocity is beyond 10 meters per second and that it will be necessary to be able to abandon the machine the moment a gust strikes unexpectedly.

I do not quite understand this machine. Will you please explain it to me? you have not answered my question: "How much do you need to make your experiments in Egypt?"

I sold my trucking business, but had to sacrifice 100,000 francs and accept time payments.

Very truly yours, O. Chanute

For Lilienthal's book see the January 1892 issue of L'Aeronaute.

Cairo, June 24, 1893

Louis-Pierre Mouillard to Octave Chanute

My dear sir,

I confirm my letter of May 27th. I reply to yours of May 21st. I wish to say relative to the small airplanes that you will find a very clear description of them in "Vol sans Battement". I believe you have that part (of the book) as I could not find it among what I have of it. However, I remember the passage clearly to be able to make these small models alright.

However it is hard to describe how to make them operate well. A large number of tryouts will be necessary in which the speed with which these models are launched must be in accordance to the creation of a good equilibrium of the model. As these little airplanes are merely small triflings, they require plenty of thinking and corrections, in order to make them fly well.

Therefore refer to the chapter mentioned above, build according to the directions, experiment and do not get discouraged if everything does not turn out well the first time. This is the beginning of the flyer's profession to be learned, a profession which at my opinion is too much neglected.

To prove this, let us say that one of these little models operates well in three flights while I handle it, yet somebody else may not succeed to bring the same model to a glide for hours.

In order to have these little toys well controlled, you have to satisfy yourself that the load is in front. It goes without saying that weight and surface must be in good proportion, that the two wings must have equal surfaces, and above all the same curvature, which is an essential point. If, after this has been done, the fall is too fast, make the correction either by increasing the action of the correction fold, or, if it is an airplane with displaceable wings, by moving the wings forward. By the same token reverse the procedure in case the airplane wriggles too much which means makes many dips. For this case read the page again which treats this subject in "Empire de l'Air."

As I suggest, see that you bring the launching throw into exact agreement with the speed, neither too fast nor too slow. The speed which the hand imparts to the model must be exactly the same which it will have in its travel when it flies alone under the effect of attraction.

The purpose of launching by hand is to save space which is precious indoors. The other method of launching is the plain drop without any out side push. This might be called putting a mathematic start of action. The airplane is taken with two fingers by the tail, nose downward absolutely perpendicular. When released it will right itself during the fall until it reaches a horizontal position which it ought to maintain. This change of position from vertical to horizontal less 5 to 10 degrees should progress not too rapidly which would be too easy to produce, nor too slowly as the height required for the drop would be too great. The arc which answers my purpose is a quarter of a circle which has a diameter of about 2.50 to 3 meters. The airplane is then released from this height above the ground, turns around before reaching the ground and races above the ground horizontally.

This launching method is much more difficult than that by hand. In any case, dear sir, especially in the beginning, plenty of patience is necessary. In order to make the experiment less tiresome and not to lose the thread of one's observations and thoughts there should be an assistant who picks up and brings back the model.

I read the description of Mr. Langley's machine in the Aeronaute. It is a translation of the magazine article you have been so kind to send me. I confess (between me and you) I did not quite understand it. After all it may probably be poorly done. At any rate, according to what I saw it is a line of ideas which I have not studied.

Yet there is one thing which amazes me, namely the inability to guess how the control of this machine is accomplished.

This subject of control becomes more and more a matter of consternation. Needless to say I am seriously considering many possible cases that may arise once the machine is in the air. What moves I have to make to see them! I usually find the answer by reasoning and check it later by observing the motions of the birds. I have only to look out the window and see my neighbors, the small vultures.

It certainly is a great advantage to have these "professors" at one's disposal. I rarely see aviators start off with such a study and I ask myself how they are going to handle a flying machine, even a letterperfect one. It seems to me they will experience the same sensation as that produced by a pair of skates on the feet of somebody who has never practiced on ice.

The airplane of the indolent looks good, at least theoretically.

What else can I tell you, dear sir, here I am in a bird cage and care little what goes on beyond. I am corresponding only with you and with my family. Furthermore, I am unable to explain what whim possessed Madame Adam's "Nouvelle Revue" to talk about me, according to what I have been told, as I have not yet been able to read this article (May 15th). Gliding decidedly must have some real virtues to provoke common people, without any education, in such a way.

With an affectionate handshake, dear sir, I am, Your devoted, Mouillard

Please, what has become of my torpedoes?

July 21, 1893

Louis-Pierre Mouillard to Octave Chanute

My dear sir,

This is in answer to your letter of June 14th. The patent examiner asks for something which is very hard to comply with; it is not the formal statement before the authority in reference to the experiment which I am sorry to have referred to in "Vol sans Battement," although it is only incidentally. I never dared to mention this experiment in "L'Empire de l'Air" because nobody witnessed it and even to narrate it under oath has no value as you may lie to a Consul the same as to anybody else; this does not amount to anything. The proof of whether I tell the truth or am a liar cannot be established by this act which at my opinion is of no importance whatever. No, the difficulty lies somewhere else, i.o. in the perfection of an automatic device which produces the two motions which make gliding possible.

For the moment, there is no use to think about it. I have pondered hard over it, but this is so long ago and in such a base that I might as well say nothing about this device. It simply is to call for the practical demonstration of the problem which the aviators are looking for. If we had only this small model, a larger one could easily be manufactured. But for the present time and for a long time to come it is to be presumed that automatic flight has to be dispensed with and that our thoughts should be concentrated on balanced and animated flight. Yes, you said correctly "animation is necessary to overcome the thousand difficulties which this problem presents," and it would be extremely easier to go over a course by means of an aerial or land bicycle than do it by means of an automat. Therefore, let us forget these exigencies which are beyond our reach and turn to the examiner and his patents. Let us create the fact ‹ flight and let us not break our heads on how to agree with all the nonsense of an incompetent examiner.

If you may remember, this was my viewpoint expressed in my first letters; I still stick to it and emphatically so. My ides is to create, and later, according to circumstances, take remunerative precautions, if this is possible; at any rate to create. If the success should only be rewarded by glory, by vain hope if you wish, it would be so intense that I think not much would be left to be desired.

Besides, I am not the one who is opposed to take precautionary steps, but it is the patent office which refuses to allow them.

I thank you immensely for all the worries and work you put into the translations.

Let us get to Lilienthal.

I read again the resume of his book in the Aeronaute to which you called my attention.

I see that he puts a very great faith in this convexity of the wing. He is right, since this curvature produces a slight forward motion by means of the decomposition of the force (parallelogram of forces) due to the pressure imparted by the beat of the wing.

But this is not sufficient to produce a general forward motion and besides there is another actuating matter in flapping-wing flight; namely, the direction given to the motion. In short, these two pictures surprised me. I spent quite some time looking at them, even with a magnifying glass, but did not understand them.

The one in flight, I say this bluntly, looks to me like a mystification. The more I study it, the more baffled I am. In certain parts the instantaneousness has been absolute, look at the cords (ribs) of the vertical tail, they are perfect. The wings have moved so it is natural that their picture is blurred. But how is it that the rear part came out as sharp and the front so faint? Up to this point everything would still be all right, but no more if the aviator is analyzed. He seems to be behind the right wing down to his knees and to be seen back of a transparent screen. Resume: I do not understand the least of it, or to express myself better, I believe that we are being fooled.

The picture of the machine at rest is more important, but there are many things I do not understand. How are the wings attached to the body? I do not see it. It is impossible that in the small illustration Lilienthal is in a flight position; he rather seems to be placed in his machine without attaching himself to it, simply to appear in the picture with the machine.

I had the note of Mr. Curtiss translated. According to this translation I got the impression of falls that are more or less forward against a slight wind (besides he himself specifies it so) but not of a free fall. In this latter way the initial trials have to be made. He seems to have been caught several times in an air current, and does not conceal his fright. He did well, he is frank about it, because it really is terrifying. Only he has been so careful that he has not been carried away as Biot for example, with the machine I recommended to de Massia, or as the writer of this letter with his machine No. 3. It seems to me that the described experiments are nothing but parachute test by means of an airplane, because I do not believe in the veracity of the picture showing the machine in flight.

As it seems that you have no other copies of them, I am returning both pictures to you; the third one does not count. I am adding a picture of de Massia's airplane, damaged by Biot with which Biot revealed a clumsy flight over dry ground where you are apt to break your arms and legs twenty times and your head to boot. I reprimanded him severely and advised him to make use of a river or lake as a landing place. However, he replied that he cannot swim and that he is very much afraid of water There must be plenty of truth in what he wrote me, for he discontinued his experiments.

Finally, what the translation which I have read describes is not flight at all, but testing the force of the air, with much caution at that. My 42 meters were the start of broaching the matter, only it should have been done at once with a controllable machine such as the one you endeavor to get patented. Such a machine would first of all be stopped at will, then, by moving the wing tips gradually forward the flight could have been continued a little bit longer even if there was a regular absence of wind. If during the moving of the wing tips a new air current would be encountered the flight could be taken up anew, simply by releasing the hold of your hand. This may be kept up for quite a distance. However, my airplane No. 3 as rather a parachute than a controllable machine, a fact which chiefly caused me to be afraid.

If you study Lilienthal's airplane carefully I do not believe that you are able to understand how it is attached to the body of the aviator and how to create the variations of vertical control. As for horizontal control there are the two tails which should be sufficient for free-fall experiments, but they would be not enough for a glide of only 10 meters per second.

Here you have plenty of words; it seems that I talk much and act very little. I had better start to produce instead of talking.

By the way, this is a good moment to answer the question you asked me in one of your recent letters: "what amount of money would be necessary to make experiments in Egypt."

Here is my idea. You told me of the happy recovery of Mrs. Chanute. Please persuade her to spend several months of the winter in Egypt with you. I can assure you that this would not be disagreeable whatever. No rain, ten degrees above zero, dry air, and radiant sunshine.

At the same time you could form an opinion of "the friend of the birds," for it is of elementary discretion to know by sight people with whom you have connections. You may see for yourself what is to be done to do a good job, whether the conditions around me answer the purpose or whether I would do better to go somewhere else. Egypt would be satisfactory for experimentation but deplorable for construction. There is a possibility that I am exaggerating, so you will be able to consider this case better than I.

At that time I shall have completed in its details the airplane for inactive people which I shall explain to you and you will know what to think about it. At the same time we could discuss the problem and accomplish more in one afternoon than in years of correspondence.

I also shall show you gliding flight at close range without disturbing you in the least, simply from the top of my roof. My small vultures will be there and will give as many lessons as will be necessary to understand it. I even promise to show you some large vultures and I expect to transform the theoretical friend of aviation which you are, into a fanatic of practical gliding.

Therefore, do not tire yourself out with the exposition. Some of these days you have to preside over the Congress. Be firm in your discussions, but you will agree with me that all the excellent oratory there will not have as much value as a short flight of a hundred kilometers.

It is really my ambition to accomplish that flight and I do not believe that this is very difficult.

Hoping to see you at the beginning of winter, I am with a cordial handshake,

Your very devoted, Mouillard

Could you get me a sample of the steel and aluminum alloy in sheet form about 3 mm thick. I read that Mr. Langley has used this material in the construction of his aircraft, and I would like to take a look at this metal to form an opinion about its strength.

August 13, 1893

Octave Chanute to Louis-Pierre Mouillard

Dear sir,

You must be surprised at not having received any reply to your kind letters of June 24th and May 27th but the reason is that I have been overburdened with work. Besides the translations of "L'Empire de l'Air" and of your article as well as the preparations for the Aeronautical Congress, the entire Congress of the Engineers has been dropped into my lap due to illness of the colleague who had charge of it.

At last, I got through with and can breathe a little easier to give you some news. First of all you made a hit with the Aeronautical Congress. As you did not send me the note I asked for on Feb. 17 on your experimentation project, I extracted this paper from your book and presented it to the meeting in your name. It turned out that the idea of a school for gliding experiments has been budding in several hands and there were four proposals for such experimental programs. Everybody admitted that your plan is the best.

As soon as I completed the translation of your article, I sent it to the Cosmopolitan on June 26. Not a word since! As a rule an article is paid for when it is printed, and I suppose the publisher waits until such a time. However, I wrote him to learn when the article is going to be published.

It is therefore my opinion that you are about to make a fine reputation in the United States. The above article, the translation of "L'Empire de l'Air" which the Smithsonian is going to publish, and the paper presented to the Congress are bound to bring you many admirers and will make possible the founding of a society for making experiments.

You ask me whether it would be worth while to make an attempt for the Hodgkin's prize. I do not know anything about it. When I spoke about it to Mr. Langley, a year or so ago, I understood that Mr. Hodgkin's idea was for the promotion of the study of the nature and properties of atmospheric air as a question of hygiene and was not at all meant to encourage air navigation. I wrote him on that subject.

Mr. Langley returned to me your torpedo at last, but his opinion is not favorable. He says "I regret not to be able to believe that this idea is practical. I am hard pressed for time at present and cannot go into a lengthy explanation of my reasons."

I am going to check the translation of the rest of your book before I send the manuscript to you. Since my illness last winter, I have not had a single day of leisure but I hope to get some since the Congress is concluded. Yet I can tell you forthwith that the description of the small airplane is in the part (of the manuscript) which is in your possession.

There is a passage in your letter of May 27th which I do not understand. You say: "I thank you once more for the kindness bestowed upon me and agree perfectly with you about the notes which might put me into embarrassing circumstances and interfere with my studies."

If this is meant to be sarcasm or an indirect reproach, I think it is ungrateful. Please give me a frank explanation,

With a sincere handshake I am, 0. Chanute

Cairo, Sept. 10, 1893

Louis-Pierre Mouillard to Octave Chanute

My dear sir,

I must have expressed myself very poorly in my letter of May 27th so that you could make out such a heinousness on my part as a sarcasm, a reproach. Ah! Please, dear sir, no! there is not the slightest trace of it. I wanted to make you understand, in a discrete manner, that I am not quite certain what amount of money the book will bring, and that it would be better, for my peace of mind, that you take over the direction of the good work that you wish to do, than to leave this job to me. I am not rich and these notes are a terror to me. Can you figure in what straits I would find myself if I could not pay my debts? Only to think of it, turns my hair grey. Now you will understand that the musings of the "kind dreamer", as I am called, would be entirely disturbed. That's what I wanted to tell you and nothing else. Then, dear sir, excuse what I am going to say, I do not understand what in my letters could make you suppose that I might be wicked occasionally.

The more I think of it the more I feel the necessity of getting better acquainted. If I could go to Chicago I would call on you, but I am unable to do so. You, who have freedom of decision, please take this step. I beseeched you in my last letter to do so and I reiterate this request today, so that once you know your man, you would never again entertain such a supposition.

At the same time I would have the opportunity to thank you by word of mouth for the kindness you have shown, not only by guiding me, but also by pushing me forward, by causing me to create, by presenting excerpts of my book to the Aeronautical Congress in Chicago. The pen is not emotional enough to express properly such thanks. For this reason, once more, you ought to come, you ought to persuade Mrs. Chanute to make this trip. Besides, this is no great matter for travellers like you who take a trip from San Francisco to Florida. From Paris to Cairo is a little matter of 14 hours by express to get to Marseille, then one hundred short hours on the Mediterranean Sea and you are in Alexandria. From there to Cairo is 3 hours and a half by express and I shall have the pleasure to shake hands with you to show you the city of the caliphs, the pyramids, etc., etc., and the master flyers, the small and large vultures. Please tell Mrs. Chanute that there is no possibility for her to get tired out. There are thousands of carriages in Cairo and splendid hotels. Naturally I would see to it that you are not being annoyed, as foreigners usually are, by the Arabs. In other words, I shall do my utmost to make your stay in Egypt an agreeable one.

What a job you must have had this summer! About the Engineering I cannot say anything but yet I can understand that it could not bring itself into being all by itself. As to the Aeronautical Congress, I hope you are going to send me a report which would enable me to take notice in every detail, of all the good things you had the kindness to say about gliding.

I thank you for the information on the Hodgkin's contest. I saw too late that it was not in my line. Also thanks for the trouble you underwent to translate the "L'Empire de l'Air," "Vols sans Battement," and the article for the Cosmopolitan, in fact for everything you have done for me.

I am sorry about Mr. Langley's opinion of my torpedoes. Right or wrong, I consider them to be of importance. I can only imagine that preoccupation and excess of work have prevented him from studying the matter properly. Will you please keep them in secret.

From what you point out in one of your letters, I understand that the boat and the torpedoes should receive a helping push for any success what ever, which would put my name in evidence. The only field where I may seriously expect this is in aviation. I therefore, shall devote all my efforts to my latest airplane.

Thanking you once more for your kindness, I am with an affectionate handshake, your very devoted, Mouillard

September 25, 1893

Octave Chanute to Louis-Pierre Mouillard

Dear Sir:

I received from the Cosmopolitan magazine the money for your article. Instead of $60 promised they sent me $100 which I remit, converted into 515 francs, by draft. I shall send you several copies as soon as the article is published.

The day after I mailed my letter of Aug. 13, I received yours of July 21 and waited from day to day for the money from the Cosmopolitan so I could mail it with my reply. I also wanted the financial crises to pass which hit the United States.

I am happy to know that your health is so much improved and that you have decided to make experiments with your machine by yourself. I would like very much to pay you a visit in Cairo but due to the events I cannot even think of doing so this winter.

We had a terrible financial crisis in this country due to a monetary depression. A large part of my savings was invested in a silver mine which lost 580,000 francs through the depression, which has decreased my income by 28,000 francs

On the other hand my partner in the wood-preservation plant is seriously sick of an incurable disease and I cannot absent myself at this time.

It is with deep regret that I have to give in to this necessity because, as you so well put it, "we could make more progress in one afternoon's conversation than in years of correspondence."

Write me therefore what your plans are, where you think it would be best to make the tests, and how much you believe will be necessary for expenses.

In my opinion you are wrong by intending to withdraw the patent application. We have started, had expenses, and we ought to persevere. Therefore send me the affidavit of your experiment with Machine No. 3, and I myself shall make a small demonstration airplane which will takeoff for the examiner. Only it will take off backward and cannot be controlled. The examiner simply said that an airplane could not take off without a balloon.

Very truly yours, O. Chanute

Cairo, October 14, 1893

Louis-Pierre Mouillard to Octave Chanute

Dear Sir,

I received your kind letter of September 25 and hasten to acknowledge receipt of your draft of 515 francs. Thank you once more for all the trouble you had to undergo for me. I am anxious to see how the drawings which go with this article turn out when reproduced by means of engraving.

What you told me, dear sir, about the money question makes me feel very sorry for you. This depression was no surprise to me. From this distance I saw the storm coming and I felt very uneasy about you. I want to tell you that I feared the losses to be much larger than what you state. Even so, any loss is very painful; yet you must take it philosophically as there is no remedy.

One of the very unfortunate effects of this depression is my being deprived of the pleasure to see you. How provoking this is! Because we need so much time to get together in order to discuss matters, several days of conversation would, I believe, be very useful to the problem we both cherish.

You ask me about the plans of my two new airplanes. As the reply to this question would be rather long, I am going to write a summary of what they will be, and send it to you as soon as I have it completed. You then may be able to estimate the costs yourself and to decide where the experiments should take place; at the same time you will see whether there is need for a patent.

You ask me again for the affidavit of my experiment at Mitidja. This would just provide a morning's discussion so that I could induce you to look at the matter as I do. Because we do not agree at all on this point of aviation which could be called "On the possibility to reproduce gliding flight with small airplanes." You also wrote me that you wanted to make a small airplane which would take off backwards. I do not believe that you will succeed.

I never thought to use small-scale planes because plenty of difficulties will be caused by the smallness of the mass. I said many times that "the bird has the more facility to glide the larger it is." This is an absolute truth which is demonstrated to you by nature and beyond which there is no chance of success. Gliders must be large or they will not perform; the scale of the soaring birds in my pictures demonstrates this in an irrefutable manner.

As you will see I take up this problem (for the very good reason of inactivity) but I am equipped with a mass of 600 kilograms.

What you want to replace is the string of the kite. In the animated airplane (the bird) this string is the energy and its effects. By means of a large machine I try to replace the energy partially, but theoretically I do not succeed in doing so completely, even equipped with all the facilities this enormous mass makes possible.

Getting back to the affidavit of my gliding flight. It happened by taking a chance and could only be repeated under exactly the same conditions. So I believe its little value should be recognized especially as it convinced me that you will not be able to replace the string. You admit two things, namely that it is hardly probable that this affidavit will cause the commission to grant a patent; and between you and me they are right; furthermore if they should grant a patent it would have very little value.

I think that you had better wait for my two latest ideas; and if there is something that merits a patent, go to it, by all means. Plenty of caution is never harmful.

What I have to do now is get to work and compile my scattered notes on these two machines. Fortunately for us the summer has not been too hot. I have not been affected and I seem to emerge this year rapidly from the depression which Europeans usually experience in autumn. I therefore hope to be able to present to you something interesting. In other words it will be my theory of flight without flapping wings incorporating the latest developments.

I read once more the last sentence of your letter: "According to the examiner, the airplane cannot take off without a balloon." He is right. I only saw the contrary of it in case of an ascending current on a mechanical airplane; the animated airplane, the bird, makes use of the energy and its actions and of the wind in order to overcome gravity.

My dear sir, I wish that you may recover a good part of your interests agreeable to your wishes.

With an affectionate handshake I am, Mouillard

In l'Illustration of Sept. 25, I read a note of a few lines which said in substance that the U. S. Government proposes an amount of $200,000 for a torpedo which could evade nets. My No. 3 meets precisely this requirement. Is there any possibility that Mr. Langley might reconsider or could it be presented to others? Please give me an answer to this subject in your next letter.

December 6, 1893

Octave Chanute to Louis-Pierre Mouillard

Dear Sir,

I have to ask your pardon for having delayed for such a long time my reply to your two kind letters of Sept. 10 and Oct. 14. A few days after I received the first one, the loss of my old mother caused me great grief; then I took sick, and this together with the financial worries prevented me from writing, even to you.

I feel better and, although circumstances do not permit me at this time to make your personal acquaintance, I am still hoping to put our theory into practice. And I am anxious to meet you.

As a preparation I am returning to you under separate cover the rest of your book and put 2500 francs at your disposal to have it published. Make any changes you wish, but send me the proof as your work progresses so as to enable me to correct my translation accordingly.

I was under the impression that your article would appear in the December issue of the Cosmopolitan for I have been proofreading it more than a month ago. I received the magazine yesterday (I am sending it to you), but the article is not in it. The publication of the excerpts of your "L'Empire de l'Air" has been delayed due to the special session of the U. S. Congress which put a strain on the facilities of the U. S. Printing Office.

I think it will be better to refer your torpedo to an official of the navy rather than to Mr. Langley. The latter is so busy that he has no time to spend on things in which he is not keenly interested. Even on the subject of aviation he sends me notes written on slips of paper. If you approve of it, I shall go to Washington to find out who will be the proper party to get in touch with.

I still disagree with you on the subject of the usefulness of an affidavit of your experiment at Mitidja. First you will see in my December article (which I am sending you) that Mr. Montgomery of California has made almost an identical experiment, and then in the same article you will notice that Mr. Huffaker has reproduced gliding flight automatically by means of a concave-convex airplane which takes off backwards, a possibility of which I have been well aware.

As we already have had expenses for this patent I think it would be wise to keep it up and to confound the examiner.

I am sending you the publication of the papers presented at the Aeronautical Congress.

Sincerely yours, 0. Chanute.

December 18, 1893

Octave Chanute to Louis-Pierre Mouillard

Dear Sir,

On December 6, I wrote that I was going to send you the rest of your book, however I did not mail it before today. I wanted to review it once more to check my translation which, I notice, lacks color very much. I enclose a list of the chapters each envelope contains.

I have not translated "le Desert" because you informed me that you have decided to omit this chapter. It contains many fine pages of which you could make use in other parts of the book.

Neither have I translated the "Causeries" (chats), which, by the way, is the finest chapter of your book. I want to leave it for the last, at a time when I shall feel better disposed in order to present in English that glowing and colorful style (which is very difficult to do) which fascinates the reader. I tried to do it the other day, but I failed terribly. I am too tired and I shall have to translate this chapter (also I think, other chapters which you did not send me) when your book is in the press.

Mr. Langley wrote me that the translation of l'Empire de l'Air (the one which has my o.k.) is going to be published in January. I believe that the article in the Cosmopolitan will appear at the same time and that your paper I presented to the Aeronautical Congress will be printed in June. These "American reverberations" should spur the curiosity in France and so prepare for a market for "Le Vol sans Battemant." I therefore advise you to get busy and find a printer or a publisher.

I kindly ask you to have a translation made of my article in the December issue of the "American Engineer" and also the one that will be in the January number. You will note here (these are the last ones) that I greatly recommend that an initial experiment be made without motor, even if later on we have to use one. I still think that true balance is the stumbling block. You will greatly oblige me by giving me your opinion of my conclusions.

Let me know also what your plans are to go into the application of your theory and how much you think it will cost to carry out the proposition. I know how hard it is to make such an estimate, but after all, you are in a better position than anybody else to do so.

I wish you a happy New Year. Very truly yours, O. Chanute

Envoyé à M. Mouillard
10.- Fableau --Etudes d'oiseaux
11.- Etudes d'oiseaux:Licmétis Nasiscus [!]
Goelands et Mouette
Corbeaux et Milans
Gardo Boeuf
Furfinus Kulhil
Oiseaux du Cairo
12.- Cerf-VolantaCerf-Volant Voila
13.- Ballons -Ballon
Ballon Alpestre
Etude de l'atmosphere
Soupage de Ballon
14.- Parachute
l5.- Causeries -Aphorismes
Arret de Pénétration
Mechanique de l'oiseau
du choix dans l'obsorvation [!]
Angle d'attaque
Apropos du Vol Théorique
Necessite de l'observation[!] des Voiliers
du repos en aviation
Aspect de l'aéroplane
Demonstration par l'experimentation
Conseils d'ami
16.- La Désert

On to 1894